Packaging Specifications Manual | Standards Compliance & Packaging Guidelines

Standards Compliance & Packaging Guidelines

I. Compliance

  1. With Regulatory Requirements:
    As a supplier to the rail industry, you are required to develop packaging systems and use packaging materials which are consistent with regulations established by Federal, State, Provincial or local governments wherever your package is discarded (i.e. recycled, reused, disposed of etc.). U. S. and Canadian regulations have been established for the packaging of materials determined to be hazardous. Included in this category are explosives, compressed gases, flammables, oxidizing materials, poisons, irritating materials, etiologic agents, blasting agents, radioactive materials, corrosives, and hazardous wastes. All suppliers shipping these types of material are required to adhere to the most restrictive of these regulations. The supplier has ultimate responsibility for assuring that their packaging is in compliance with current regulations.
  2. With RailCIS Packaging Standards and Guidelines:
    Railroad industry suppliers will be requested by individual railroad industry customers to comply with these packaging standards and guidelines and therefore, it is expected that suppliers will adhere to them. Furthermore, the RailCIS Quality Systems Standards Subcommittee (QSSS) requires that supplier “Preservation and Packaging” be audited relative to the standards contained herein when evaluating quality products and processes. Packaging Standards have been developed for high volume usage parts or parts presenting initial packaging problems. These Standards take precedence over the Guidelines which have been developed for parts presenting common characteristics such as dimensions, weight, fragility and usage. It is recognized however that returnable containers represent the best environmental packaging solution and therefore, if a supplier obtains the agreement of a railroad industry customer to use returnable container(s), then those agreements, for the concerned customers, take precedence over the Guidelines and Standards contained in this Manual.

II. Environmental Packaging Considerations
Implemented, proposed and/or impending Federal and State legislation prohibits wasteful and/or excessive packaging. The challenge then is to meet these requirements with the amount and degree of packaging required without excess. Overpackaging and wasteful “just in case” packaging is undesirable for both the supplier and the user.

  1. Non-recyclable packaging is that which has no available or economical system in place to reprocess the material used. Wax-coated corrugated is a prime example of this type of packaging.
  2. Wax or plastic coated paper is prohibited because it contaminates the recycling process.
  3. Non-kraft corrugated has no recycle value and therefore is unacceptable. Recycling centers will not accept it, therefore, rail industry suppliers shall not use it.
  4. The use of lead and cadmium in packaging and/or labeling material is strictly prohibited.
  5. Plastic plugs, caps and protectors are extremely difficult to recycle due to oil and paint contamination, colors, uncertainty of resin type, and transportation costs. Every effort should be made to reduce the use of plastic. If it cannot be eliminated, other changes can be made to assist with the effectiveness of the packaging:
    1. Mold the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) code into the part. When elimination is not possible these codes will allow for effective recycling.
    2. Clear Linear Low Density PolyEthylene (LLDPE) plastics are preferred and can be effectively recycled.
    3. Shipping plastics must not be contaminated with paints and lubricants.
    4. When at all possible, replace plastic with a recyclable paper substitute.

III. General Packaging Requirements

  • Essential Packaging Functions

It is expected that the packaging perform a number of functions during transportation, storage and use, including:
– Containment of the product to ensure integrity and safety
– Protection of the product from physical damage
– Convenience of use and ease of handling by users
– Compliance to legal and regulatory requirements
– Communication of information
– Environmental acceptability and ease of disposal and/or recycling

  • Handling and Ergonomics

All containers and packaging must be designed with consideration given to ergonomics and ease of part removal. Appropriate consideration must be given to unit load height restrictions, weight restrictions, carton disassembly and other requirements which may affect ergonomics and worker safety.

– Manual Material Handling Guidelines The following standards have been adopted from research guidelines and principles designed to reduce the risk factors associated with causing back injuries:

  1. Any package which may be manually handled should not exceed standard dimensions of 30″ length by 20″ width by 18″ depth. This includes packages unitized on pallets which are moved by forktruck but are manually placed onto the pallet.
  2. Large boxes, bins, or waist carts which are used to hold more than one part should not be higher than 24 inches from the floor in order to allow easy accessibility to the center of the package when reaching for an item.

– Acceptable Loads The guidelines below are based on manual material handling techniques which allow the package to be carried close to the body and which do not require excessive bending or squatting:

  1. All containers designed to allow manual handling must not exceed 35 lbs. maximum weight, even if palletized. The exception to this requirement is packaging for fasteners (see below).
  2. The weight of the package should be clearly written on all four sides and the top of the container.
  3. Packages which are greater than 35 lbs. in weight increase the risk of injury if they are manually handled. These packages should be designed in such a way that they will enhance mechanical movement and discourage any manual handling.

– Handholds In order to reduce the mechanical stress placed on the hand while the carton is being carried, the handhold should have the minimum dimensions of 4½” length and 1″ minimum curvature or width of edge.

  1. The handholds should be located so that when the item is picked up the side walls do not come in contact with the legs. More specifically, the handholds should be located slightly above the package’s center of gravity.
  2. Any package which is too broad to be lifted by both hands can be lifted by one hand if the package is no greater than 5″ deep and if it has cut-in handholds located no greater than 16″ from the top of the package. This allows the package to be carried at the side under one arm.

– Fastener Packaging All fasteners (nuts, bolts, washers, screws, etc.) must be packaged with a maximum gross weight of 50 lbs. and should be unitized according to the Unit Load Containment Guidelines. Use of the standard small parts returnable container is also recommended.

– Unique Packaging Requirements Unique packaging requirements dictated by part characteristics such as rust prevention, weight, fragility and surface appearance which are not covered by these Guidelines or the packaging standards are the responsibility of the parts suppliers.

– Recommended Practices

Minimum Packaging Requirements
For each part, a realistic minimum level of packaging should be established which provides adequate functionality. Suppliers should continually review these minimum requirements and recognize that there are regulated minimum standards for some items such as hazardous materials.
Packaging Design Reviews
Suppliers should conduct ongoing reviews of all packaging designs to ensure they are consistent with these Guidelines and reflect currently available technology and materials.
Packaging Reduction
Consideration should be given to eliminating all unnecessary packaging materials wherever possible. A priority should be placed on reducing material by weight and volume. Unnecessary materials and packaging for overprotection are unacceptable.
Packaging Reusability
Suppliers should identify those opportunities where packaging can be designed to promote reuse, for its originally intended function or other uses.
Packaging for Recyclability
Suppliers should determine how their packaging can be made more recyclable. To aid recycling efforts companies should design packaging to be easily separable when made of different materials. All packaging components should carry information (e.g. symbols) to identify material type.
Incorporation of Recycled Materials
Suppliers are encouraged to determine where and how much recycled material can be incorporated into packaging designs while also providing adequate performance.  Supplier purchasing practices should provide preference for recycled materials where economically and functionally justifiable.

IV. Bar Code Symbology & Label Requirements

  • Scope
This section of the Guidelines defines the proper use of bar code symbols generated on labels which are used to identify material, containers, and documentation covering parts shipped from suppliers. Guidelines for the printing and application of bar coded labels are provided herein. These labels are designed to improve productivity for both customers and suppliers by providing information in a machine readable form.
  • Label Concept
The purpose of a bar code label is to facilitate the movement of goods and the exchange of data among all members within a channel of distribution (suppliers, carriers, customers and others). The amount of data (bar code as well as human readable text) needed on a label is a function of the needs of the trading partners involved. When a bar code label is used in conjunction with computerized data bases and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Advanced Shipment Notification (ASN), the amount of data needed on a label may be reduced significantly. This section defines a standardized format for labels. It is intended to serve as the preferred format for those developing or revising unit load and transport container bar code label standards in order to provide a universally accepted format across the industry. The industry based standards described herein are patterned from AIAG standards from the Automotive Industry Action Group.

– Symbol Specifications

  1. General Description
    Code 39 is the symbology specified for use within the rail industry. It is a variable message length, bi-directional, discrete, self-checking, alphanumeric bar code. Its basic data character set contains 43 characters: 0 to 9, A to Z, and the seven special characters: -, °, space, $, /, +, %. An asterisk (*) is reserved for use as the start/stop character. Each character is composed of 9 elements: 5 bars and 4 spaces. Three of the nine elements are wide (binary value 1) and six are narrow (binary value 0). An example of a Code 39 symbol including the quiet zones, start and stop characters, the intercharacter gaps, and the data “1A” is shown below.
    Exhibit 1.
    Source: AIAG B-1
  2. Code Configuration
    A message consists of any number of characters enclosed between a start and a stop character. A complete symbol consists of a quiet zone, a start character (*), any number of data characters, a stop character (*) followed by another quiet zone. Below is the specific structure of each Code 39 character.
    Exhibit 2.
    Source: AIAG B-1

– Print Requirements

  1. Code Density
    The minimum nominal width of the narrow element shall be 0.0075 inches (0.191mm). The maximum nominal width of this element shall be 0.021 inches (0.533mm). Exceptions to these restrictions are only allowed through agreement between an individual customer and a particular supplier.
  2. Code Height
    The minimum bar height should be 0.25 inch or 15 percent of the bar code length whichever is greater. Where space allows, 0.50 inch is preferred. Heights less than those shown are only acceptable where space prohibits the printing of the prescribed sizes.
  3. Wide-to-Narrow Ratio
    The ratio of the width of the wide elements to the width of the narrow elements shall be 3:1, with an allowable range of 2.8:1 to 3.2:1.
  4. Bar and Space Width Tolerances
    The nominal width of the various elements and the ratio of the wide to narrow elements must not change within an individual bar code symbol. The allowable printing width tolerance (T) is a function of the nominal width of the narrow element (X) and the required ratio of the wide to narrow elements (N). This tolerance is defined as:
T = +/- [0.1481 (N – 0.6667)] X
T = +/- 4/27 (N-2/3) X
  1. Intercharacter Gap
    The minimum width is 1X – |T|. The maximum width shall be 3X or 0.53 inches, whichever is greater. The width of the narrow element is X and the allowed tolerance as defined in section D above.
  2. Quiet Zone
    The minimum left and right margins shall be 10 times the width of the nominal element or 0.25 inch (6.4mm) whichever is greater.
  3. Human Readable Information
    In most cases, a human readable interpretation of the bar coded characters must be printed above the symbol. The start/stop characters (asterisk) should always be suppressed from printing. Additional requirements are noted in the Label Section.
  4. Numeric Digit Zero
    It is preferred that the numeric character zero be represented in the human readable portion of the bar code symbols as “Ø” to distinguish that character from the alphabetic character “O”.

– Reflectivity Requirements

  1. Reflectivity and Contrast
    Effective contrast between the dark and light areas of the bar code is mandatory for proper operation of scanners. The reflectivity of the bars and spaces should ideally be measured at both the B633 and B900 spectral bands as specified below:

    Spectral Band
    Wave Length (peak nm)
    633 +/- 5%
    900 +/- 10%
    Maximum Band Width 50% Level

    Band 900 corresponds to scanners that use light sources which operate in the near infra-red. Band B633 refers to readers utilizing a visible red light.

    The responses should be smooth curves without secondary peaks within the band and no major part of the response curve beyond the specified 50% points. The printed bar code symbol must meet the contrast and reflectivity requirements for band B633, at a minimum.

    The measurements should be taken using the identical label substrate and printing technique that will be used to produce actual labels.

  2. Reflectance
    Minimum allowable background reflectance (substrate/spaces) is 50%. This means that at least 50% of the light emitted is returned to the scanning device. Minimum allowable ratio of space to bar reflectance is 4:1. That means if the space reflectance (Rw) is 50%, the maximum bar reflectance (Rb) is 12.5%.
  3. Print Contrast Signal (PCS)
    PCS is defined as: Image7
    The minimum allowable PCS is 75%.

– Quality Assurance

  1. Opacity
    The prime objective of label opacity criteria is to limit the condition known as “show through” where space reflector values are adversely affected by background (surface upon which the label is applied) patterns showing through the label substrate. When the bar code symbol is applied to the package, carton or material, there should be no greater than 10% variation in the reflectance values of the spaces due to these patterns showing through the substrate. Also, the label must continue to meet all reflective criteria stated above.
  2. Bar Code Roughness, Spots and Voids
    The tolerance of the bar and space widths allow for a certain degree of bar edge roughness. The white to black (and black to white) transition points are determined where the center of a circle with a diameter 0.8 times the nominal width of the narrow element is 50% covered by the dark area. Spots and voids are permitted which meet either of the following criteria:

    1. The spot or void can be contained within a circle whose diameter is 0.4 times the nominal width of the narrow element.
    2. The spot or void occupies no more than 25% of the area of a circle whose diameter is 0.8 times the nominal width of the narrow element.
  3. Verification
    Verification of the printed bar code shall consist of checking for correct message encodation, measurement of reflectivity and print contrast ratio, measurement of bar/space widths, measurements of wide to narrow ratio and a check for proper code height. All standards previously defined must be satisfied.

– Label Requirements

  1. Size and Materials
    The minimum label size is 4 inches high by 5 inches wide. Wider labels may be required to accommodate large data fields. A smaller label may be used with customer consent only where the physical dimensions of the product cannot contain the standard label. Sample dimensioned labels appear in Exhibits 3 & 4 below. The label should be white in color with black printing. Other colors may be used with customer consent as long as reflectance requirements are satisfied. Permanent adhesive must be used to apply the label to the product or container. Adherence to the product substrate should be smooth and wrinkle free. If the specified label cannot be applied due to physical restrictions, special arrangements will be required as noted later.
  2. Durability
    Numerous environmental effects can lead to the degrading of the bar code symbol, substrate, adhesive or laminate. These changes may affect one or more quality parameters of the label whether they be optical or physical. The net effect of such changes can be to render the label unusable. It is therefore important to consider these effects when producing and applying bar code labels. Some of the factors that should be considered include temperature, humidity, light exposure, abrasion, chemical contamination and aging. In the case of identification labels, they must survive the rigors of the entire distribution channel to the point of end use of the labeled item. Warranty labels must last at least as long as the life of the warranty. Label protection against moisture, weathering, abrasion, etc., may be required in harsh environments and is encouraged wherever practical. Laminates, sprays, window envelopes and clear plastic pouches are examples of possible protection methods. In choosing any protection method, care shall be taken to assure the protected labels meet reflectivity and contrast requirements and can be scanned with contact and non-contact devices.
  3. Bar Code Print Quality
    It is important that the bar code be decodable throughout the system of use. For this reason, quality tests should not be limited to label production inspection but also should be followed through to the end use.
    Exhibit 3.
    Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping & Labeling Guidelines
    Exhibit 4.
    Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping & Labeling Guidelines -The ANSI X3.182, Bar Code Print Quality Guideline shall be used as a standard.
  4. Sampling
    Appropriate Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques should be used. Labels should always be verified after changing ribbons, toner or ink and anytime label stock is changed. In addition, labels should be verified at the beginning of a shift and after any maintenance is performed on the printing equipment.
  5. Obsolete Labels
    For returnable containers or reused transport containers, obsolete labels must be removed or covered. If covering obsolete labels with new labels, care should be taken so that the bar code print quality of the new labels is not adversely affected due to show-through. The new labels shall meet the bar code print quality requirements in the final packaging configuration.
  6. Placement
    The recommended location is parallel to and no closer than 1.25 inches (32mm) from any edge of the container per Exhibit 5. For placement on various types of containers, labels or tags should be applied in an easily accessible location (see Exhibits 6, 7 & 8). For unit loads the placement of the label shall be in the upper half of the unit load. Unit loads shall have an identical label on all 4 sides of the container.
  7. Orientation
    Labels should be placed on the side of the container with the bars perpendicular (+/- 5 degrees) to the natural bottom of the container. When labels are placed on the top of a container they should be put at the two opposite corners with the bars perpendicular to the edge and not be over any seams. Strapping and taping must not obstruct the label. Some items have the label attached via a twist tie. It is important that the label be visible where it is attached.
    Exhibit 5.
    Source: Label Compliance Made Easy, Excel Tech, Inc., 1995
    Exhibit 6.
    Source: AIAG B-10

    Exhibit 7.

    Source: AIAG B-10
    Exhibit 8.
    ex8Source: AIAG B-10
  8. Special Labels
    A tag with the required information may be used in place of a label directly applied to the product/container under the following conditions:

    1. Space does not permit room for standard top edge of the container (e. g. small paper bag).
    2. Type of shipping container or product will not allow direct application of a label (e.g. unpacked equipment).

    The tag should be placed in an easily reached location. If the product is 10 feet long or over, a bar code label or tag is required at both ends (see Exhibits 6 & 8).

  9. Data Fields and Identifiers
    Data identifier codes immediately preceding each data field in the bar code are used to identify that information which follows. The data identifiers are used to verify that the correct bar code is being scanned. These characters are not to be included in human readable form except for the label identification number identifiers: 2S, 3S, 4S and 5S. The following identifier codes are assigned for the different types of data which may appear on the label. Also shown is the expected maximum length of each data field and the minimum height of the human readable characters to be displayed above the bar coded symbol.
        Field  Length   HRI  Height
P   Customer Item Number   12   0.5
C   Continuation of Long Numbers   12   0.5
Q   Quantity   7   0.2
V   Supplier Number   5   0.2
S/M/G   Serial Nos. for Shipping, Master, Mixed Labels   10   0.2
A   Customer Purchase Order No.   16   0.2
4A   Line Number (from PO)   3   0.2
3Q   Unit of Measure (from PO)   2   0.5
3S   Label Identification No. -smallest package label   10*   0.2
4&5S   Label Identification No. -unitized package label   10*   0.2
2S   Label Identification No. -advance shipment notification   10*   0.2
NOTE: * includes data identifier
The unique Label Identification Number is designed to act as a data base “key” used in Advance Shipment Notification which may be electronically transmitted (Electronic Data Interchange). The label number refers to other information contained on the label (i.e., part number, quantity, purchase order number). A sample label which illustrates the data identifiers appears below.

Exhibit 9.
Source: Tharo Systems, Inc.
  1. Label Types There are four different types of labels required as defined below:
    1. Individual Parts Label also called the Unit or Single Pack Label (3S)– This label is applied to the individual product itself or to the smallest common package containing a like item, i.e. same part/item number. Label dimensions or marking area, and the location of the bar code symbol(s) on the individual part are not defined in this standard. As a result, the Individual Parts Label specifications for parts provide maximum flexibility for size, location and information included on bar code symbols. Although the fields are variable length, the objective is to keep the information length as short as is possible. A supplier in conjunction with the customer shall agree on the information to be bar coded, as long as an approved data identifier is used. Data identifiers commonly used on Individual Parts Labels include:
      “P”:   A part code or part number as determined and specified by the customer.
      “T”:   Traceability information, specified by the customer, for tracing component parts or the finished product. Data may include information such as: manufacture date, lot code, type of part, etc.
      “V”:   A supplier code as determined by the customer.
      “Other”:   Virtually any information agreed to between supplier and customer can be bar coded on an individual part/unit pack, including the weight of each piece.

      The format for a bar code symbol with a data identifier is illustrated below:

      Start   Identifier   Information Content   Stop
      *   P   Part Number or Code (part identification)   *
      *   T   Traceability Data   *
      *   V   Supplier Code   *
      *   Other   Various Information   *

      The “3S” label is also used to identify single packs of like parts in a Master Pack. In place of “T” Traceability is “Q” Quantity data. Refer to Exhibit 10 as an example.

      The information should appear in human readable and bar coded form. The data identifier must be placed in the bar code symbol immediately following the start character and preceding the actual data elements. This character is not to be included in the human readable line except for the label identification number which must display the “3S”.

    2. Shipping/ Parts Identification Label also called Trading Partner Labels
      The Shipping/Parts Identification Label is used principally to identify the contents of a shipping pack. The Trading Partner Label (TPL) concept conveys information throughout the entire channels of distribution within the industry by establishing “building blocks” of data via three label segments and by incorporating ASN, EDI and EDF (Electronic Funds Transfer) technologies. Descriptions of three types of TPL labels follow:

      1. Master Load Label (4S)
        A Master Label should be used to identify the total contents of a multiple single pack load of the same part number. Refer to Exhibit 11. The individual packages or items within the shipping carton should have a “3S” Single Pack Label applied. The unit carton must have the “4S” label applied. Master Labels are similar to Single Pack Labels with the following exceptions:

        • Ship-From and Ship-To access should be used when applicable.
        • The heading Master Label shall be printed at 2 LPB as the first block of the customer segment.
        • The data identifier for a bar code package identification on the Master Label shall be “4S”.
        • The quantity on the Master Label shall be the total in all single packs.
        • All other data in the customer segment of the Master Label shall be specified by the customer such as customer P.O. and line number.

        To the extent possible, the label should be placed in such a manner that when the pack is broken apart, the label is discarded (for example, hang the Master Label from banding or attach to stretch wrap).

      2. Mixed Load Label (5S)
        A Mixed Load Label shall be used to identify a load of multiple single packs of different part numbers. Mixed Load Labels, as shown in Exhibit 12, shall conform to the following specifications:

        • Ship-From and Ship-To address should be used when applicable.
        • The heading Mixed Load shall be printed as the first block of the customer segment at 2 LPB.
        • When used, the container identification data identifier on the Mixed Load Label shall be “5S”.
        • All other data in the customer segment of the Mixed Load Label shall be specified by the customer such as customer P.O. and line number.
      3. Advanced Shipment Notification (ASN) (2S)
        This label is to be provided for every shipment that has been preceded by an EDI Advance Shipment Notification. A shipment can be defined as one shipping unit or multiple shipping units. In the case of multiple shipping units, each unique unit, pallet load, overpack container, or piece of machinery must posses a “2S” Label. Refer to Exhibit 13. The following information is required for an ASN Label:”K”: Customer Order Number (select one).”2S”: Label Identification Number assigned by vendor to identify this shipment. The data identifier “2S” must be included both in the bar coded and human readable form. Suppliers should avoid repeating shipment identification numbers within any calendar year. Each individual product or pack must have a “3S” or “4S” (when applicable) label applied where possible.
    3. Primary Metals
      All suppliers of primary metals (raw materials) will be required to affix bar coded identification tags/labels to the material. See Exhibit 14 for a sample.
    4. Warranty
      Labels, not necessarily bar coded, must be applied to all warrantied items by the manufacturer and remanufacturer. Exhibit 15 provides a sample page from the ISM-RIF WSS Manual. Required information on a Warranty Label is:

      1. OEM or Rebuilder Name
      2. OEM or Rebuilder Location (not shown in Exhibit 15)
      3. Supplier Part Number
      4. Manufacture Date/Rebuild Date
      5. Serial Number (where serialized)
      6. Warranty Expiration Date (negotiable)

All bar code label types above must adhere to the following specifications:

  1. Bar Code Data Limit – The number of bar code data characters (including DIs) per block for a bar code symbol shall not exceed 19 (does not include start/stop characters).
  2. Bar Code Symbol Height – The minimum height of the bar code symbol shall be 0.5 inch (13mm).
  3. Symbology – Code 39 bar code symbology shall be as defined by the AIM Uniform Symbology Specification Code 39 (US Code 39). Bar code reading equipment shall not be enabled to read the full ASCII option. A leading space character shall NOT be used. The Code 39 symbology check character (Module 43) option SHALL NOT be used. The four (4) characters %, /, $, + of the Code 39 symbology SHOULD NOT be used. The ratio of the wide elements to the narrow elements should be 3:1. The measured ratio shall be between 2.8:1 to 3.2:1. The intercharacter gap should be equal to the narrow element width.
  4. Narrow Element X Dimension – The narrow element X dimension range shall be from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.017 inch (0.43mm) as determined by the printing capability of the supplier/printer of the label.
  5. Quiet Zones – The bar code symbol shall have leading and trailing quiet zones with minimum widths of 0.25 inch (6.3mm) each see below.

    Exhibit 16.
    Source: AIAG B-10
  6. Human Readable Interpretation for Code 39 – The data encoded in the bar code symbol shall be represented in human readable characters above the bar code symbol and SHALL NOT include the start/stop characters and the human readable DI. The human readable interpretation shall be upper case characters. The human readable interpretation shall be printed left justified, approximately 1.0 to 1.5 inches (25 to 38mm) from the left edge of the sub-block to leave room for the title. The human readable interpretation of the data encoded in the bar code symbol shall be printed at either 2 or 3 LPB to ensure that the minimum height of the bar code symbology is met. ANSI MH10.8.2 Data Identifiers and symbology start and stop characters are not considered part of data and SHALL NOT be printed in the human readable interpretation. The DI shall be shown in parenthesis in the title line only and shall follow the title. IMPORTANT NOTE: Specific regulations and requirements govern the labeling and identification of Hazardous Materials and are additional to these labeling specifications.

    Exhibit 10.
    Source: AIAG B-10Exhibit 11.
    Source: AIAG B-10Exhibit 12.
    Source: AIAG B-10Exhibit 13.
    Source: ISM-RIF Subcommittee on Information Standards, Bar Code Symbology & Label Requirements, Revised 7-1-94

    Exhibit 14.
    Source: AIAG B-5

    Exhibit 15.
    Source: ISM-RIF WSS Manual, 1995

V. Part Protection Considerations

  • Vapor Corrosive Inhibitor (VCI) Paper/Film

Part protection can be best achieved through the use of VCI paper and poly materials. They afford good part protection and this method is most desirable.

VCI oils and Rust Preventative (RP) coatings give long term part protection under severe moisture conditions but are less environmentally friendly and are therefore less desirable.

  • Acceptable Methods for the Protection of Painted or Plated Surfaces
    – Part nesting, with or without separators, as appropriate.
    – Cells, back-to-back or top-to-bottom placement of parts within fiber based cells.
    – Die-cuts, as applicable for more precise parts locations and to maximize part/package density.
    – Wrapping is not encouraged but may be the most protective option in some cases. Use when appropriate.
  • Foam Dunnage Products
    Foam dunnage protects parts from damage, abrasion, part-to-part contact, and supports items in transit. Currently there are no economical solutions for recycling foam, while the use of foam or foam sheeting as an expendable material is discouraged, the following should NOT be used under any circumstances:
    – Foam glued to corrugated and any other dissimilar materials bonded together.
    – Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)
    – SPI Code #6 including pieces, sheets or loose fill.
    – Foam-in-place packaging is strongly discouraged but may be used in rare occasions.
    Alternatives include:
    – Eliminate the foam or replace it with other easily recycled materials such as die-cut corrugated or molded kraft paper pulp.
    – Sensitive part surfaces placed near corrugate may require recyclable polyethylene film or bags, or repulpable coatings on the corrugate surface. Wax coatings are not permitted and foam sheeting in undesirable.
    – Mechanically attach foam to corrugated or other dissimilar materials to allow for ease of disassembly and subsequent recycling of corrugated.
    – Reduce the amount of foam to a minimum.

VI. Pallets

  • Pallet Size Requirements
  1. Standard pallet sizes where part size permits are:
    Length       Width
    48″   x   40″
    48″   x   42″
    48″   x   48″
  2. Where the part size permits, containers should be designed in a modular fashion to fit on standard pallet sizes. If the size of the part is greater than 48″, the pallet must be designed to accommodate the part length and weight, keeping the material within the confines of the pallet. Unique sized pallets may be required to accommodate shipment of large parts or subassemblies. In general, the pallet depth should never exceed 48″, instead, it is the pallet width that should be sized to the part length.
  3. All containers and packaging must be designed with consideration given to ergonomics and ease of part removal. Appropriate consideration must be given to unit load height restrictions, weight restrictions, carton disassembly and other requirements within these Guidelines which may affect ergonomics and worker safety.
  4. 2″ x 4″ stringers are preferred as appropriate
  5. Material weighing 2500 lbs. or greater should be placed on a pallet constructed of 4″ x 4″ stringers and 1½” thick deck boards. Other modifications may be required to maintain the integrity of the package.
  6. A minimum 3½” underclearance on all sides is required to facilitate use of hand operated storage equipment.
  7. When the weight of the load is not extreme, four-way fork entry pallets are preferred.
  8. For minimum construction requirements refer to the Packaging Materials section of the ISM Packaging Standards Manual.
  • Wood Pallets
    Used as the base of a packaging system, the wood pallet must:
    – perform in the railroad industry
    – have the capability to be engineered to ensure product protection
    – be recyclable
    – be manufactured and repairable to the standards of the National Wooden Pallet and Container Association’s (NWPCA) “Uniform Standard For Wood Pallets”
    Used wood pallets are acceptable as long as they are structurally sound, are square, have no missing or broken boards or loose nails and are not distorted.

VII. Crates

  • Wooden Pallet Boxes/Crates
    Standard pallet boxes and crates as specified in the Packaging Materials section of the ISM Packaging Standards Manual are used for heavy material which may exceed the pallet carton limits, but only need minimum protection such as castings, forgings, special bolts or other bulk items. However, due to fact that wire bound crates can not be readily recycled, their use is discouraged. The standard identification label must be applied to the four sides of pallet box or crate as well to the items contained within them.
  • Corrugated Pallet Boxes/Crates and Containers
    The ISM Standards Manual Packaging Materials section contains specifications for corrugated fiberboard boxes and corrugated box dividers, separators and partitions. They provide excellent recyclability, strength and low cost as one-way expendable shipping containers. Utilization of recycled materials, changes in transportation methods and increased warehouse stacking heights have caused an increased emphasis on the stacking strength of corrugated containers. Suppliers are encouraged to provide corrugated containers which provide for improved stacking strength, increase the recycled content of corrugated paper and reduce the overall amount of fiber used per shipping container. The corrugated box industry has traditionally specified containers based on burst strength, a measure of the puncture resistance in pounds per square inch. Unfortunately, the emphasis on burst strength resulted in the use of a container which provided adequate puncture resistance but often poor stackability or edge crush strength. Designing containers around edge crush specifications allows for greater flexibility in liner and medium combinations which helps achieve a more efficient design using lighter weight materials. It must be recognized that proper design of a corrugated container requires more than edge crush strength or burst strength. Only by analyzing the packaging performance requirements of the distribution system and testing an alternative can a safe switch to the alternative specifications be assured. All corrugated containers must be stamped with the Certificate of Box Manufacturer. The certificate must appear on an outside surface of the container and must be readily visible. The use of glue or tape is encouraged in the manufacture of corrugated containers while the use of staples is discouraged for safety reasons.

VIII. Edge Crush Test (ECT) Specifications

Significant environmental benefits can be obtained when designing corrugated containers based on ECT specifications. In general, use of the ECT specification allows for equivalent stacking performance using less paper and more recycled content.

Table 17.
Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping & Labeling Guidelines

IX. Unit Load Containment & Palletization

  • Metallic Strapping
    Use of plastic strapping is encouraged; however, steel strapping is to be used in the case of very heavy components or metal castings with sharp edges. When material is to be shipped via rail, strapping must meet the Association of American Railroads Loading Guide requirements.
  • Plastic Strapping
    The largest waste factor for plastic strapping is using the wrong material and/or number of straps for the application. Various studies have revealed that in most applications, 15 percent of the packaging materials being used could be eliminated with no package integrity loss.
    – Three commonly used plastic strappings are:

    1. Polypropylene which has low break strength, high elongation and good elongation recovery over short periods of time.
    2. Polyester which has high break strength, low elongation and high retained tension over time.
    3. Nylon which is the most expensive plastic strapping with high break strength, high elongation and high elongation recovery.

    – Any plastic strapping used must satisfy requirements of tensile strength, elongation and recovery.

    – Strapping must be color coded as follows:
    Polypropylene – translucent clear only
    Polyester – translucent green only
    Nylon – any color other than translucent clear or green

    – Friction sealing is recommended for all non-metallic strapping to effectively allow recycling without potential of metal contamination.

    – Use of metal clips or buckles is discouraged, except as specified otherwise.

  • Application Techniques
    – Size cartons modularly to the pallet to eliminate voids and minimize shifting of packages on pallets.
    – Strapping should be used only in vertical alignment. The use of horizontal banding is a poor packaging practice and may require an upgrade of the corrugated paperboard and/or the addition of corner supports.
    – Plastic and metal banding must be applied using proper tension settings. Excessive tension can lead to container failure and poor load containment as well as pallet failure.
    – When banding to corrugated cartons, use of corner or edge protectors is recommended to prevent the collapse of carton edges.
  • Use of Plastic (Stretch) Film for Unitization (techniques Exhibits 18, 19 & 20).
    – Use clear (non-tinted), Linear Low Density PolyEthylene (LLDPE) stretch film.
    – PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC) film is not to be used.
  • Use of Shrink Film
    – Shrink film offers some unique advantages for specific packaging applications and is considered an acceptable material if it provides the essential packaging functions required for the commodity handled.
  • Use of Unitizing Adhesives- Unitizing adhesives are strongly encouraged as a replacement for stretch wrap or strapping because it is the best environmental option. The benefits include:
    – elimination of wrap time
    – equipment/floor space savings
    – load integrity, appearance
    – inspect/repack ease
    – unit load increased, nothing stretches or moves
  • Proper Alignment and Compression Strength of Corrugated Fiberboard Cartons
    – Pyramid loading of cartons on a pallet is discouraged (Exhibits 21 & 22).

Exhibit 18.
Method: To anchor the narrow widths either slide the end of the film between two boxes (Diagram 1) or tie it to the pallet and pull the film up diagonally to start top banding (Diagram 2).

Method: Pull the film tightly around the upper portion of the pallet creating a tight, secure band of film. End the wrap by catching the film on the corner, pulling the top hand brake towards the floor (Diagram 3) or poke fingers through the film (Diagram 4).

Source: GOODWRAPPERS® Wrapping Techniques Manual, 1987

Exhibit 19.
Method: Pull the stretch film diagonally across one top corner of the pallet, holding the hand brake closest to the pallet center higher than the hand brake closest to the floor (Diagram 1). Once pulled diagonally over the top corner, dip the higher hand brake below the next corner Diagram 2). Raise the roll up over the following corner (Diagram 3) and dip it below the next corner. Continue the process – each time moving towards the center of the load until the top is completely wrapped (Diagram 4).

Source: GOODWRAPPERS® Wrapping Techniques Manual, 1987

Exhibit 20.

Method: Anchor the stretch film to the bottom of the pallet either by sliding the film between the load and pallet (Diagram 1) or tying it to the deck boards. Then pull the film diagonally up to the top corner of the load (Diagram 2). Double-winged pallets serve this purpose best. Bring the film down and catch it on the diagonal winged pallet corner (Diagram 3). Once the film is caught under the pallet bring it diagonally up to the top of the load (Diagram 4). Then bring the film down diagonally to the next pallet corner (Diagram 5). Repeat this as many times as necessary. To complete the X-pattern on the remaining two corners skip a top corner and take the film across the bottom of the pallet (Diagram 6). After catching the film under the winged pallet, proceed diagonally up to the next top corner (Diagram 7). Continuing this process on the remaining corners forms an X-pattern on the four sides of the pallet, securely holding the load.

Source: GOODWRAPPERS® Wrapping Techniques Manual, 1987

Exhibit 20 (continued).
Source: GOODWRAPPERS® Wrapping Techniques Manual, 1987

Exhibit 21.
Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping & Labeling Guidelines

Exhibit 22.

Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping & Labeling Guidelines