Packaging Specifications Manual | Definitions



The definitions contained in this section were compiled from several published sources. Many definitions represent a combination of several different sources, others were transferred into the section directly from a single source. The objective of this section is to provide a succinct and relevant collection of packaging, labeling and EDI terminology currently used in the industry. Such information will serve as a knowledge baseline so that communication of related issues will be unambiguous and clearly understood.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


Absorbent Packing
The inclusion of absorbent material within a package to take up liquids resulting from leakage or condensation of the contents.

The determination of whether any bar code element width or intercharacter gap width (if applicable) differs from its nominal width by more than the printing tolerance.

Acid Resistant
A substance which is resistant to the action of most acids under certain conditions.

Material capable of adhering one surface to another. The component used to join portions of a carton, unitize loads and secure labels to items being bar coded.

Automotive Industry Action Group, a standards group targeted for the automotive industry.

Automatic Identification Manufacturers Association

Character set that contains alphanumeric characters (letters), numeric digits (numbers) and usually other characters such as punctuation marks.

American National Standards Institute, a U.S. Government organization with responsibility for the approval and promulgation of various standards.

Chemical agent added to an adhesive to decrease penetration into the stock.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The character set and code described in American National Standard Code for Information Interchange, ANSI X3.4-1983. Each ASCII character is encoded with 7 bits (8 bits including parity check). The ASCII character set is used for information interchange between data processing systems, communication systems and associated equipment. The ASCII set consists of 128 characters.

Aspect Ratio
The ratio of bar height to symbol length in a bar code.

The capability of an electronic reader to automatically recognize and decode multiple bar code symbologies.

Average Background Reflectance
Expressed as a percent; the simple arithmetic average of the background reflectance from at least five different points on a sheet.


The spaces, quiet zones and area surrounding a printed symbol.

A preformed container of tubular construction made of flexible material, generally enclosed on all sides, except one which forms an opening that may or may not be sealed after filling. It may be made of any flexible material or multiple plies of the same, or combination of various flexible materials.

A machine used to compress recyclables into bundles to reduce volume. Balers are often used for newspaper, plastics and corrugated board.

Something that binds, ties or encircles the package or pallet load.

The darker elements of a bar code symbol, either narrow or wide in dimension.

Bar Code
An automatic identification technology which encodes information into an array of parallel rectangular bars and spaces of prescribed widths.

  • Character
    A single group of bars and spaces which represent an individual letter, number, or function (e.g. start/stop).
  • Density
    The number of characters which can be represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often expressed in characters per inch (CPI). CPI is a function of the “X” dimension, element width ratio, and intercharacter gap. These three parameters must be defined when describing density as CPI.
  • Horizontal
    A symbol presented in an array which looks like a ladder.
  • Reader
    A device used to decode a bar code symbol.
  • Symbol
    An array of rectangular bars and spaces which are arranged in a predetermined pattern following specific rules to represent elements of data that are referred to as characters. A linear bar code symbol typically contains a leading quiet zone, start character, data character(s), stop character, and a trailing quiet zone.
  • Symbol Width
    The distance between the outside edges of the minimum quiet zones. Sometimes called “symbol length”.
  • Vertical
    A symbol presented in an array which looks like a picket fence.

Bar Height
The bar dimension perpendicular to the bar width, also called length.

Bar Width
The thickness of a bar measured from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the same bar.

A uniformly bulged cylindrical container of greater length than breadth made of wooden staves bound together with hoops and having two flat ends of equal diameter.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Bumpy Bar Codes which unlike standard bar code labels printed on paper, BBCs are printed on metal and consist of a series of bumps of varied depth and spacing.

A bar code symbol capable of being read correctly in opposite scanning directions, e.g. from start character to stop character or from stop character to start character.

Vertical members used as spacers between the top and bottom decks of full four-way entry pallets.

Bond Strength
A measure of the strength of a bond between two adherents.

A container having a round neck of relatively smaller diameter than the body and an opening capable of holding a closure for retention of the contents. The cross section of the bottle may be round, oval, square, oblong, or a combination of these. Generally made of glass, but also of polyethylene or other plastics, earthenware, metal, etc.

Bottom Deck
The bottom boards that tie into the stringer or the blocks of a pallet.

A rigid container having closed faces and completely enclosing the contents. Fibreboxes must comply with all the requirements of the carrier rules.

Box Maker
A corrugated or solid fibre box manufacturing establishment which has equipment to score, slot, print and joint corrugated and solid fibre sheets into boxes, which equipment is regularly utilized in production of fibre boxes in commercial quantities.

Box, Wirebound
A rigid container whose sides, top and bottom are of rotary cut lumber, sliced lumber, resawn lumber, fibreboard or combinations of these, usually 3/8″ or less in thickness, fastened to cleats and to each other by means of binding wires and staples. The ends are of similar material, plain or stapled to bottoms or liners fastened in place by means of nails or staples or wire attached to sides, tops and bottoms. The closure is made by twisting or looping together the ends of the binding wires.

A shipping technique that combines both unitization and stabilization.

A package which is formed by utilizing the contents as a mandrel around which flexible packaging material is wrapped and sealed. Contents are thus unitized for handling and shipping.

Banding articles together into distinct and separate units with plastic stretch film.

The American name for cloth woven from jute fibres.


Woven steel wire 1/4″ or more in diameter.

Container, usually made of welded wire, for consolidating shipments of packages.

A receptacle, generally of 10-gallon capacity or less, usually capable of being hermetically sealed. May be made of light-weight sheet metal, plastic, glass or fibreboard with metal ends.

A rigid container, generally round or rectangular, made of fibre, metal or combinations thereof, designed to pack or store dry products of not more than 5 pound weight and having a replaceable top or cover.

Commonly used to refer to a fibreboard shipping container.

Commonly used to refer to a fibreboard shipping container.

A term used synonymously with barrel, but usually of large size or capacity.

A small compartment, usually closed on four sides with open ends, and serving to block, brace or cushion an item or to separate items within a container such as a cell formed by a set of paperboard partitions. May be formed by paperboard, solid or corrugated fibreboard, plastic or wood.

Certificate, Box Maker’s
A statement printed on a corrugated Box Maker’s fibreboard box  guaranteeing that all construction requirements of the carriers have been observed and identifying and locating the box maker.


Source: Fibre Box Handbook, Fibre Box Association, 1992

The smallest group of elements which represents one or more numbers, letters, punctuation marks, or other information.

  • Check
    A character incorporated within a symbol to ensure the accuracy of the read. Also called self-checking character. When numeric values only are used called a check digit.
  • Set
    The characters that can be encoded in a particular bar code symbology. The set may include numbers, alphabet characters and any special symbols such as punctuation marks.

In general, the rim that projects above the cover of a cylindrical container such as a metal or fibre can, a metal, fibre or wooden drum.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Also called pinwheel. Four rectangular containers placed as a component in a bonded block. Each layer of the chimney will have two containers lengthwise of the transportation vehicle, two containers crosswise of the vehicle, and a vacant space between the four containers.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

A paperboard generally made from recycled paper stock. Uses include partitions within boxes and the center ply or plies of solid fiberboard.

Chock Blocks
Concave or mitered blocking pieces used to secure objects in position.

Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Pieces of material such as wood or metal, attached to a structural body to secure, strengthen or furnish a grip.

Bend or hammer over the protruding points of nails so they will hold fast.

A sealing or covering device affixed to or on a shipping container for the purpose of retaining the contents and preventing contamination thereof.

Code 39
For purposes of this manual, Code 39 (also known as Code 3 of 9) shall mean the symbology as specified by AIM Uniform Symbology Specification Code 39. Full alphanumeric bar code. Code 39 is the standard for many industries, including adoption by the U.S. Department of Defense for its LOGMARS specification.

The deformation of a shipping container caused by excessive external pressure, environmental fatigue or internal vacuum problems.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Compliance, Label
A term that describes a mandate requiring trading partners to utilize a common label format so communications throughout a supply chain can be very efficient.

Compression Bulge
Expansion of the outside dimensions of a filled transport-package as a result of external downward pressure caused by strapping of the unit-load or by the weight of other superimposed packages or both.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

The ability of a reading system to join together the data from multiple symbols and interpret it as a single message.

Concealed Damage
Damage, which is discovered after delivery to the ultimate consignee, to freight transported to destination point without valid exception.

Concealed Loss
Loss from a package transported and delivered under a clear record which loss is discovered after delivery to the consignee.

Moisture or liquid formed on surfaces due to difference in temperature in surface to outside air.

The company or person to whom articles are shipped (Receiver).

The company or person by whom articles are shipped (Shipper).

A box or receptacle which is usually the outer protection used in packing goods for shipment. May be of several types such as demountable cargo, flexible, master, and returnable shipping.

Container ID
Alphanumeric field used by the shipping company to identify the shipment.

That which contaminates or makes impure by contact or mixture and affects a material’s properties. Non-homogeneous materials which corrupt the recycling or reprocessing of another material.

Continuous Code
A bar code in which the space between two characters is part of the code and the spaces represent information.

Head Container top and/or bottom head, dished outwardly to give increased strength, rigidity and capacity.

May be square, oval as well as cylindrical. It may be the body part of a reel or it can be just a tube without heads, used in a variety of lengths and diameters for winding many different materials.

Corner Posts
A square, round or triangular member placed inside or outside of the corners of a pallet container. Made from wood or fiber-based construction.

Corner Protection
Material assembled to form an “L” and placed against the edge of the face of a load to distribute the pressure of steel or plastic straps and prevent them from cutting the lading or packaging.

Deterioration of a material by chemical action.

Corrugated Fiberboard
The structure formed by gluing one or more sheets of fluted Fibreboard: corrugating medium to one or more flat facings of liner board. There are four common types:

  • Single Faced
    The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to one flat facing.
    Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms
  • Double Faced
    The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings.
    Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms
  • Single Wall
    The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings. Also known as double face.
    Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms
  • Double Wall
    The structure formed by three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated members.
    Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms
  • Triple Wall
    The structure formed by four flat facings and three intermediate corrugated members.
    Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Over-driven fasteners below the surface of deckboards.

The top, end or lid of a container, usually the part which closed the filling or dispensing opening.

Characters Per Inch, a measure of bar code density.

Crate, Wood
A rigid or collapsible shipping container of framed construction joined together with straps, nails, bolts or any equivalent method of fastening. The framework may be enclosed with sheathing. It may be demountable (reusable) or non-demountable.

To fold in, squeeze or tighten by a series of corrugations so as to hold one part against another.

Crimp-Type Joint
A method of joining two ends of steel strapping by applying pressure resulting in indentures in the strapping itself.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Crimp-Type  Seal Joint
A method of joining two ends of steel strapping by applying Joint pressure to a seal resulting in indentation in both the seal and the strapping.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Cross Top Wrapping
A unitization technique which covers the top of a load.

In a transaction, the party that receives, buys, or consumes an item or service.

Customer Part Number
The part number as defined by the customer.

Cut Seal
A seal used to join the two ends of steel strapping by applying pressure resulting in indentations which actually cut both the seal and the strapping. The completed joint is known as a notch-type joint.


Data Identifiers
An assigned character (or set of characters) within a bar code symbol which defines the general category or specific use of the data that is encoded in the same bar code symbol. The data that follows the data identifier (DI) is a single piece of information, or in the case of concatenated data, multiple pieces of information that may be separated by a predefined character (s).

The horizontal members on the top and bottom faces of a pallet.

The distance between the innermost surface of the box measured perpendicular to the length and width.

Depth of Field
The distance between the maximum and minimum plane in which a scanner is capable of resolving a bar code symbol.

The impairment of quality, or usefulness of an item: degradation.

(A) A method of preparation in which a part or container has been cut, slotted and scored or any combination of these by custom made dies; (B) a part so made.

Diffuse Reflection
A bar code verification term. Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light from a surface such that an incident ray is reflected at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An illuminated ideal diffuse reflecting surface will have equal luminance from all directions in the hemisphere surrounding the surface.

Discrete Code
A bar code symbology where characters are independent and the spaces between characters (intercharacter gaps) do not encode information.

Disposable Inflatable Dunnage (D.I.D.)
A polyethylene bladder enclosed in and supported by plies of heavy Dunnage (D.I.D.) Kraft paper capable of maintaining designated air pressure. Used in transportation vehicles, per AAR commodity and loading publications, to fill lengthwise and/or crosswise loading voids.

Distribution Packaging
Refers to integrated package and product handling from factory to Packaging point of sale.

A device, made of various materials which separates the space within a container into two or more spaces, cells, compartments, or layers. Dividers may be plain, interlocking, scored, horizontal, vertical or diagonal. The primary purpose of dividers is to separate the articles and/or to furnish cushioning.

Double Stacking
One pallet piled on top of another during shipping.

(A) Fibre: A cylindrical shipping container with straight sides, made of paperboard, used as shipping container for domestic and export shipping of dry powders, dry solids, semi-liquids, liquids and any number of other items. Top and bottom may be made of paperboard, steel, plywood, solid wood, Kraft-covered wood, Kraft-covered steel, or other materials. Capacities range from 3/4 gallon to 75 gallons. Diameters range from about 8″ to about 23″. Depths range from about 3″ to 42″. (B) Metal: A cylindrical shipping container, made of metal, single wall, with either double-head (top and bottom), partial opening (for closure by plug and flange), with convex or flat head or flat full removable-head construction. Usually ranging from 12 gallon to 110-gallon capacity.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

(C) Polyethylene: Used in handling of corrosive chemicals. Made in rectangular or cylindrical shapes. May be used as an inner liner of a steel drum. Also is used inside a wood or fibre box as a substitute for a carboy (a large glass bottle).

Drum, Reconditioned
A raw steel drum which has been subjected to various processes such as cleaning, repairing, relining, repainting, testing, etc., in order to make it suitable for reuse as a shipping container.

Drum, Recovery
An oversized drum used to receive the contents of a damaged drum.

Support or protection for the commodity packaged.


Edge Protection
A right-angle piece placed over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and gates or bracing to distribute the pressure from steel straps in order to prevent cutting.

Electronic Data Interchange, exchange of business transactions electronically.

In a bar code symbol, a single bar or space.

Element Width Ratio
The ratio of average wide element widths to average narrow element widths within a bar code symbol.

The study of work.

Ethylene Vinyl Acetate, a copolymer put in stretch film adding strength to ordinary polyethylene film.

Those shipping, storing, handling systems or components which can be programmed for a predetermined number of life cycles.


Face Stock
The component of a bar code label on which the bar code is printed.

Used to make something stay firmly in place. To fasten implies an action such as nailing or stapling when referring to pallets, and stitching or gluing when related to corrugated.

Fatigued Shipping Container
A shipping container which no longer retains its original strength.

Fibre sheets which have been produced or laminated to a thickness which provides a degree of stiffness. Fibreboard used for container production may be corrugated or solid of various thicknesses.

Loose strips of paperboard, plain or scored, used in a package to fill spaces not occupied by commodities.

Filler Boards
Material, usually boards, placed between layers of commodities in drums or in other containers.

Fillers, Corrugated
Scored and folded corrugated fibreboard shapes used to fill voids in a container or transportation vehicle.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Filling Bulge
Expansion of the original outside dimensions of an individual transport-package during the filling process.

Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Fire Resistant
Material that has been treated to make it resistant to burning.

First Read Rate
The percentage of correct readings that are obtained in one pass of the scanner over the symbol versus the number of attempted reads.

Five Sided Wrapping
Wrapping a pallet load’s four sides plus the top. The top of a pallet can be wrapped by using the cross top wrapping technique.

Flame Resistant
Being capable of burning when in contact with flame, but not continuing to burn when the flame is removed.

Flame Retardant
A chemical used in treating a material so that it will not support combustion.

Flanged Tube
A container constructed of four sides with a bottom and top (optional) flange. The flange may vary in length, but in all cases results in an open top and bottom. Covers are optional depending on the material being shipped.

The closing members of a corrugated fibreboard box.

Floating Bag
A method of protective packaging in which the packaged item is secured to a wooden base and then fully enveloped in a dust-proof or water vapor barrier bag.

One of the wave shapes pressed into corrugated medium.

Source: Fibre Box Handbook, Fibre Box Association, 1992

Foamed in Place
A chemical process which produces foamed cushioning conforming to the shape of the item.

A specified size and style of printing type.

Friction Seal
A type of seal for joining two ends of steel or plastic strapping that has a substance on the inside face, such as grit, to improve the holding strength of this seal. Used with crimp-type joints.


Gauge Numbers
Numbers that indicate the thickness of stretch film. Stretch film is manufactured in a variety of gauges. One thousandth of an inch (0.001″), which is referred to as 1 mil in shrink wrap, is equal to 100 gauge in stretch wrap. Below is a listing of common gauges:

.0005″   =   50 gauge   = .5 mil
.0006″   =   60 gauge   = .6 mil
.0007″   =   70 gauge   = .7 mil
.0008″   =   80 gauge   = .8 mil
.0009″   =   90 gauge   = .9 mil
.0010″   =   100 gauge   = 1.00 mil
.00115″   =   115 gauge   = 1.15 mil
.00120″   =   120 gauge   = 1.20 mil
.00125″   =   125 gauge   = 1.25 mil

Gauge, Wire
A method for indicating the thickness of a wire based on Washburn & Moen, abbreviated W&M.

The synonym for adhesive. The act of adhering one surface to another with an adhesive.

Glued (Firmly)
Adherence of one surface to another with sufficient bonding that an attempt to separate the joined areas will result in mutilation of surface fibers.

Glue Line
The line of adhesive between the two surfaces to be adhered.

Glued Load
A load in which the units are held in position within the load by means of a special adhesive that has high shear resistance and low tensile strength.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

The bellows, fold or tuck on the side of a bag. The capacity of the bag is measured with the gusset unfolded.


Hand Holes
Die-cut holes in shipping containers to facilitate manual handling.

Hazardous Materials
Materials that have been determined by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to be a risk to health, safety, and property; including such items as explosives, flammables, poisons, corrosives, and radioactive materials. These materials must be packaged, labeled, handled and transported according to stringent regulation from several agencies (current U.S. regulations appear in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Parts 171-178). International shipments must comply with docket HM-181, where the term “dangerous goods” is often used interchangeably with hazardous materials.

Volume in the upper portion of a shipping container not filled with contents. Usually expressed as percent of total volume of shipping container at a specified temperature.

The dimension of the container in the vertical direction. When related to unit loads, refers to the height of both the container and the pallet.

High Density Load
A load or product that is relatively heavy.

High Grade
Relatively valuable types of paper such as computer printout, white ledger and tab cards. Also used to refer to industrial trimmings at paper mills that are recycled.

Human Readable
Data which is not encoded for ready electronic identification.

Cushioning material having a tendency to absorb water vapor from the atmosphere.


Abbreviation for identification.

Abbreviation for inside dimensions.

Inner Packing
Materials or parts used to support, position or cushion an item within a shipping container, to support the corners or top of the container, or to fill voids. See Appendix A for examples.

Insert, Packaging
A flat sheet of corrugated paper, corrugated board, cardboard, fibreboard, or the like cut to predetermined dimensions and intended for placing alongside or folding over another article to afford protection and to insure a snug fit within an envelope, package or other container.

Intercharacter Gap
The space between two adjacent bar code characters.

Interior Separators
In a shipping container those devices which prevent intermingling of the products.

A unit-load arrangement in which there are no vertical seams on the outside of the unit-load, extending through two or more layers. The third layer is like the first, the fourth is like the second, etc.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Inverted Tray
Tray, either stayed or unstayed, which is inverted inside the base of a set-up paper shipping container to hold articles or to act as a false bottom.

Irregular Lading
A product which by its shape or construction may cause damage or be damaged by contacting other freight.

International Safe Transit Association standardized testing procedures. The ISTA pre-shipment test procedures provide a means to determine the probability of the safe arrival of a packaged product at destination. This is accomplished through the utilization of laboratory tests developed to simulate the shocks and stresses normally encountered during handling and transportation.

A single part or material purchased, manufactured, and/or distributed.

Item 222
A rule in the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) of motor common carriers containing requirements for corrugated and solid fibreboard boxes.

Item 265
A NMFC truck regulation for pallets and platforms.


A wood, plastic or fibre cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles.

A rigid, flat bottomed vessel with wide mouth opening normally made of glass.

Joint, Manufacturer’s
The seam of a corrugated or fibre box where the two edges of  the box are joined by stitching, taping or gluing by the box manufacturer. That part of the box where the ends of the scored and slotted blank are joined together by taping, stitching or gluing.

Joint Strength
The force required to break a steel strap at the joint, in pounds. This is usually the weakest part of a sealed strap.


Knocked Down, disassembled goods for the purpose of reducing the cube space of the shipment for transportation and storage.

A small cask usually of 10 gallons or less.

Known Damage
Damage discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

Known Loss
Loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

Kraft Paper
A paper made predominantly from wood pulp produced by a modified sulfate pulping process. It is a comparatively coarse paper particularly noted for its strength and in unbleached grades is used primarily as a wrapper or packaging material.


A card (tag), strip of paper (with or without adhesive backing), etc. marked and attached to an object to convey information.

  • Bar Code
    A label created by applying a pattern of alternating parallel bars and spaces, representing numbers and other characters that are machine readable.
  • Master
    A label used to identify and summarize the contents of a multiple pack (master pack) of common items.
  • Mixed Load
    A label used to identify and summarize the contents of a mixed item pack.
  • Placards
    Visually communicates the hazard class or classes of the materials being transported per Department of Transportation regulations.
  • Shipping/Parts ID
    The label used to identify the contents of a shipping pack or the item itself.
  • Tag
    A label that is hung from an object.
  • Warranty
    A label which conveys pertinent information relative to an item such as manufacturer, date manufactured, part and serial numbers as well as the warranty expiration date.

Freight which constitutes a load.

Lag Screw
Screw securement for blocking.

A product made by bonding together two or more layers of one or more materials.

Layer Numbering
Layers numbered consecutively from the floor upward.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Low Density Polyethylene, a resin base for making stretch film. Even though LDPE is a relatively strong transparent film with good tensile strength, impact resistance and tear strength, it does not match the performance of the newer LLDPE.

Length, Container
The largest of the two dimensions of the container opening.

Length, Pallet
The dimension parallel to the stringers or stringer boards; the first dimension stated in designating a pallet size.

Levels of Protection
The degree of preservation and packaging and packing required by the Federal Government to prevent deterioration or damage to supplies and equipment due to the hazards to which they may be subjected during shipment and storage.

A separate top or cover or a box or other shipping container. May be hinged or otherwise attached.

Paperboard used for the flat outer facings of combined corrugated fibreboard, and the outer plies of solid fibreboard.

Lines Per Block
A unit of measure defining the height of text characters abbreviated (LPB).

Linear Low Density Polyethylene, a resin base for making stretch film which allows it to stretch into a “string like” ribbon without breaking.

The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.

Loop Ties
Wire loops used to secure a lid to a wirebound container.

Articles not in a box, bag, package or other container.

Low Density Load
A load or product that is relatively light.

The wood product of the saw and planing mill not further manufactured other than by sawing, resawing, passing lengthwise through a standard planing machine, cross-cutting to length, and matching.

Lumber, Green
Lumber which has not been seasoned. The normal moisture content of green lumber is from 30% to 200% of dried weight.

Lumber, Kiln Dried
Lumber from which the excess moisture has been removed in a drying kiln. For use In boxes and crates, such lumber must be dried to from 12% to 18% moisture content, although some lumber is dried to a lower moisture content.


Mar Free/ No Mar
The ability to secure loads and objects without damaging the boxes with adhesives or cutting strings and straps.

Information placed on outer surface of a shipping container or package such as address labels, box specifications, caution or directional warnings.

Master Pack
A large fibreboard box used to over pack a multiple of individual boxes or containers to protect packages or to facilitate handling.

The surface on which a bar code symbol is printed, including labels, cartons or products. Also called substrate.

After the stretch film is stretched to its maximum it will recover and form fit the load which has been wrapped.

A unit of measure equal to 0.001 inch, commonly used to refer to the width of bar code elements, e.g., 0.0075 inch would be expressed as 7.5 mils.

Minimum Joint Strength
The minimum tensile strength requirement of a joint of a sealed steel Strength strap.

A situation in which the data generated from scanning a bar code does not agree with the data contained in the symbol.

Mixed Load
A load consisting of two or more sizes or types of shipping containers or commodities.

The narrowest nominal width unit of measure in a bar code.

Moisture Content
The percentage of water in a finished material such as film, paper, wood, etc., expressed as a percent of the original weight of the test sample.

Moisture Resistance
Resistant to passage of water vapor, though not necessarily a complete barrier.

Minimum Reflectance Difference, is the difference between the minimum space reflectance value (darkest space) and the maximum bar reflectance value (lightest bar) as measured across the entire bar code symbol.

Material Safety Data Sheets are documents required by OSHA which describe the physical dangers, safety procedures and emergency response techniques associated with some products.


Nailing Pattern
Specific instructions used to describe the location or position of nails.

Nailing, Staggered
Spacing nails alternately to right and left of a median line, to avoid splitting of the wood.

A unit of measure (abbreviated nm) used to define the wave length of light, equal to 10-9 meters.

The narrow upper part of a container between the shoulder and the opening.

The process of packing articles so that they rest partially or entirely within one another, thereby reducing the total cubic foot displacement.

Nested Solid
Articles nested so that the bottom of one rests on the top of the one lower thereby creating a unitized load.

Net Wrap
A plastic net that is used to unitize containers to a pallet or slip sheet. It is applied by stretching or heating the wrap.

Nominal Dimension
The ideal width of the narrowest bar or space in a given symbol. Often referred to as the “X” dimension or unit size.

A situation in which no data is produced after attempting to scan a bar code symbol.

Non-Reversible Pallet
A pallet having dissimilar top and bottom decks, with only Pallet the top having a load-carrying surface.

Notched Stringers
Stringers that have notches cut into them that will allow a forktruck four-way entry.

Notch-Type Joint
A method of joining two ends of steel strapping by applying pressure to a cut seal resulting in indentations which actually cut both the seal and the strapping.

Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

A character set that includes only numbers.


Outer dimensions of a shipping container, package or part. In metal drums it is the diameter over the rolling hoops.

Vertical alignment of shipping containers in stacks or units is not maintained.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

The property of a material to obstruct the transmission of light and prevent show-through.

The alignment of a bar code symbol with respect to horizontal. Two possible orientations are horizontal with vertical bars and spaces (picket fence) and vertical with horizontal bars and spaces (ladder).

Occupational Safety and Health Act.

Out-Of-Plumb Stacking
Enlargement of the storage space required for a unit-load because of Stacking load leaning. This may be the result of imperfect conditions during the initial unitizing process, or the result of subsequent uneven settling of the load.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Out-Of-Square Stacking
Misplacement or shifting of packages to cause the plan-view outline Stacking to fall outside the intended rectangular outline.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Outside Height
(A) In a tight-head shipping container, the height over chimes. (B) Overall height of shipping container.

An excess supply of items placed in a designated size shipping container.

That portion of the unit load exceeding the length and/or width dimensions of a pallet.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

In a bar code system, the fixed number of characters required for start, stop, and checking in a given symbol. For example, a symbol requiring a start/stop and two check characters contains four characters of overhead. Thus, to encode three characters, seven characters are required to be printed.

Overhead Weight Damage
Damage occurring when weight of upper layer shipping containers exceed the strength of lower layer containers in the same stack and row, resulting in crushing or creasing.

A container design feature wherein the top and/or bottom flaps extend one over the other.

A condition where methods used to package an item exceed the requirements for adequate protection.



  1. To put material or goods into a container for storage and/or transportation.
  2. Number of inner pack units per outer pack unit.
  3. A unit (container) which provides protection and containment of items plus ease of handling by manual or mechanical means. Examples of containers or packs which normally are disposable include bags, cartons, cartons on pallets and pallet boxes. Examples of containers or packs which are returnable/reusable include bins (with mesh or solid sides and ends), racks (plain or with special dunnage), racks with wire mesh sides and ends, tubes and drums.
  • Like Parts
    A pack which contains all like items, i.e., same part/item number.
  • Master
    A unit load containing common (like parts) items.
  • Mixed Item
    A pack containing items with different part/item numbers.
  • Multiple
    A unit load containing smaller packages (subpacks) of items.
  • Nonstandard Quantity
    A pack which contains variable quantities of like items.
  • Shipping
    A pack used for shipping items from one facility to another. Material used for extra protection for separating tiers or layers of articles when packed for shipment.
  • Standard Quantity
    A pack which contains the same quantity of like items.

A small-to moderate-sized container.

Package, Consumer
A shipping container which directly holds the product of sale, such as a can, bottle, jar, collapsible tube, carton, drum, bag, etc.

A coordinated system of preparation of goods for shipment, distribution, storage and merchandising at optimum costs compatible with the requirements of the product. There are two types, consumer and industrial.

Packing, Protective
All loose materials such as excelsior, corrugated board, shredded paper, creped cellulose, foamed plastic, etc., included in a package to insulate, absorb liquids or provide cushioning.

A corrugated or solid fiberboard sheet or other material used for extra protection or for separating layers of articles when packed for shipment. Can be expendable or returnable.

A container of circular cross section, either cylindrical or a truncated cone in shape, made of steel, black plate, fibre plastic, wood, or tin or terne plate fitted with a wire handle or bail having a capacity of 12 gallons or less.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

A platform on which unit loads are placed to permit stacking of materials and for movement of materials and pallet as a single unit.

  • Single Wing
    A pallet with only a top deck overhang.
  • Double Wing
    A pallet where both top and bottom decks overhang the stringer.
  • Flush
    A pallet whose decks do not protrude beyond stringers or deck spacers, no overhang.
  • Reversible
    A pallet having similar top and bottom decks capable of carrying a load. Also called Double-Faced.
  • Non-Reversible
    A pallet having dissimilar top and bottom decks with only the top deck having a load carrying surface. Also called Single-Faced.
  • Four-Way
    Pallets whose configuration permits entry of handling equipment on all four sides. Sometimes referred to as all-way.

Pallet, Captive
A pallet whose use cycle remains within a single system.

Pallet, Components

  1. Deck: horizontal load-carrying or load-bearing surface of a pallet.
    1. Top Deck: load-carrying surface.
    2. Bottom Deck: load-bearing surface.
  2. Deck Board: an element used in the construction of a pallet deck.
  3. Deck Opening (Space): any void in the pallet deck caused by spacing of deck boards or cutouts in deck elements.
  4. Deck Spacer: a structural member which supports the top deck or separates the top and bottom decks.
  5. Block, Leg, Post or Column: deck spacers used to make full four-way or all-way entry pallets.
  6. Stringer: a continuous longitudinal deck spacer.

Pallet, Expendable
A pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.

Pallet Load
The load that is put on a pallet.

Pallet, Non-captive
A pallet whose use cycle extends through more than one enterprise.

Pallet, Pool
Pallets of standard size and construction which are exchanged for like pallets during the transfer of unit loads between independent enterprises or systems.

Pallet, Reusable
A pallet intended for multiple cycles of use.

A general term descriptive of a sheet made of fibrous material (woodpulp, straw, paper stock or any combination thereof) on a paper machine.

A set of corrugated or solid fibreboard pieces slotted so they interlock when assembled to form a number of cells into which articles may be placed for shipment.

Rotation of a bar code symbol about an axis parallel to the direction of the bars.

A type of closure which is designed to be inserted into the opening of a shipping container, May be held by friction or screw threads.

Any of the several layers of solid fibreboard.

A synthetic of high molecular weight resulting from the polymerization of ethylene gas under pressure. In appearance it is milky white and wax-like. It maintains good flexibility under extreme cold conditions.

Poly Iso Butylene
An additive in some stretch films that gives the film cling.

Materials produced from products generated by a business or consumer which have served their intended end uses and which have been separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling and disposition.

A small or moderate-sized bag, sack or receptacle.

Those materials that cannot be reused in the manufacturing process and would otherwise be disposed of as solid waste.

Preprinted Symbol
A symbol that is printed in advance of application either on a label or on the article to be identified.

Primary Container
The smallest container in which a part is packaged for shipment.

Print Contrast Signal
A comparison between the reflectance of the bars and that of the spaces usually expressed as a percent. It is based on the reflectance measurements at specified wave lengths of light (abbreviated PCS).

Print Quality
The measure of compliance of a bar code symbol to the requirements of dimensional tolerance, edge roughness, spots, voids, reflectance, PCS, quiet zone, and encodation.

Protection Angles
20 gauge x 4″ wide metal placed over the edge of steel coil to distribute pressure from steel straps.

Data in a computer readable format.

Polyvinyl Chloride, a film formulation used in making stretch film which is more dense (heavier weight per equal volume) than the LDPE. PVC film (i. e. sandwich wrap) is usually transparent with a high gloss.


Indicates the number of parts, items or other units of measure in the container.

Quiet Zone
An unprinted area on the substrate which precedes the start character of a bar code symbol and follows the stop character. Sometimes called the “clear area”.


Rail Rules 40 & 51
Rules in the Uniform Freight Classification (UFC) of the rail carriers containing requirements for shipping containers.

Rail Rule 41
UFC rail regulations for corrugated and solid fibreboard boxes.

Read Rate
The ratio of successful reads to the number of times a bar code is scanned.

Recessed Method
An arrangement of cylindrical containers whereby they are loaded successively in voids of preceding stacks.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Repairing of all types of shipping containers or packages.

Stretch film trying to return back to its original form after it has been stretched. This action constantly pulls the load together since the stretch film tightly form-fits the load.

Waste material which is capable of being processed for subsequent use. Materials are only recyclable if there is a widely available economically viable collection, processing and marketing system for the material.

The ratio of the amount of light of a specified wavelength, or series of wavelengths, reflected from a test surface to the amount of light reflected from a barium sulfate or magnesium oxide standard.

Release Liner
The component of a bar code label which is removed when it is applied to an item.

To place in a new, different or consolidated container in order to distribute items in smaller quantities than was originally received.

The transfer of materials from a pallet deemed to be unacceptable for further use because of damage, inferiority, or unusable size or design for the distribution system to a pallet of acceptable size and condition.

In a bar code reading system, the narrowest element dimension which can be distinguished by a particular device. In a bar code printing system, the narrowest average element width which can be printed by a particular device.

Returnable refers to a package or packaging component designed to be used multiple times for the shipment of goods. Used interchangeably with the word “durable”.

Reusable refers to a package or packaging component which is initially designed for one-way use and is ultimately used for another purpose by the person and/or firm receiving the product. If a package or packaging component is redesigned, strengthened ormodified to prolong its original intended purpose, it is considered “returnable”.

(A) Materials applied beneath alternate stacks or rows of 55-gallon drums.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

(B) Materials used beneath lifts to facilitate entry of mechanical handling equipment.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Rolling Hoop
A hoop on a steel drum or barrel on which the container may be rolled without injuring the body.

A stabilization technique that secures loads by creating a thick band of film around a portion of the load by holding the roll perpendicular to the load. This technique can be used in combination with X- wrapping to create a strong band.

(A) A pile of shipping containers extending lengthwise of the transportation vehicle parallel to the sides of the vehicle and one container in width.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

(B) Units of shipping containers extending lengthwise of the transportation vehicle parallel to the sides of the vehicle and one unit in width.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

R P Compounds
Rust Preventive compounds and coatings protect metal surfaces against corrosion during fabrication, use and storage.


A paper container of three to six-ply construction made in tubular form with each tube properly nested within each other.

An electronic optical device which interprets (reads) bar code symbols and converts the optical signal to an electrical signal which can be translated into binary data recognizable to a computer system.

An impression or crease in corrugated or solid fibreboard to locate and facilitate folding.

Material outside of specifications and of such characteristics that rework is impractical.

In slotted containers, edge where outer flaps meet and where edges of covering outer flaps parallel hinge of inner flaps and are sealed by the user.

Secondary Container
A larger container in or on which multiple containers of a part are shipped.

Any material interposed between articles or packing components.

That part of a container between the main body and the neck, as on a glass bottle, collapsible tube, etc.

The generally undesirable property of a substrate that permits underlying markings to be seen.

Shrink Film
A film which has been oriented to varying degrees in one or two directions during manufacture and can be shrunk by heating after being applied to the object to be packaged. Provides a tight, contour fitting, unitizing sleeve or wrap.

Shrink Wrap
General term for the type of film which must be heat treated after it has been applied.

A protective cover, usually waterproof, barrier material used to shed water from top and sides of the article allowing free circulation of air from underneath.

Leakage of powdered or granular material through surfaces or seams of a container.

Horizontal framing along the bottom sides and ends of a box or crate.

Rotation of a bar code symbol about an axis parallel to the symbol’s length.

One of a pair or series of parallel runners, usually wood, affixed to the underside of boxes, crates, or an item to allow entry of truck forks or to facilitate sliding or lifting.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Abbreviation for Stock Keeping Unit. An item at a particular geographical location.

Any member of a box or crate commonly used in the side, top or bottom.

Slip Sheet
A flat sheet of material used as a base upon which goods and materials may be assembled, stored and transported.

A cut made in fibreboard sheet extending through only a portion of the thickness.

A cut made in fibreboard sheet, usually to form flaps and thus permit folding. Widths of 1/4 to 3/8 in. are common.

The lighter elements of a bar code symbol.

Space Width
The thickness of a space measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same space.

Spectral Response
The variation in sensitivity of a reading device or the variation in reflectivity of a test surface to light of different wavelengths.

Specular Reflection
The mirror-like reflection of light from a surface.

The Society of Plastics Industry, Inc.

SPI Plastic Resin Codes
To facilitate identification of plastic resins for recycling purposes, Codes the SPI has developed a standard plastics recycling symbology.
Source: Freightliner Production Parts Packaging/Shipping and Labeling Guidelines, 1987

A cylinder with an edge or rim at each end and an axial hole for a pin or spindle, on which to wind a flexible material such as thread, wire, tape, cable, etc.

The undesirable presence of ink or dirt in a bar code space, intercharacter gap or quiet zone (cf “void”).

A fitting in a container for the purpose of directing the pouring stream of liquid or granular contents.

Wrapping techniques that use a partial wrap, usually one to two wraps of narrow width stretch film around pallet tops for local deliveries or in-plant transporting. Techniques like top banding, roping and bundling are examples of stabilization.

(A) A pile of shipping containers or articles extending from one side of the transportation vehicle to the other, parallel to the end of the vehicle and one container in length.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

(B) Units of shipping containers extending lengthwise of the transportation vehicle parallel to the sides of the vehicle and one unit in width.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

Stack Numbering
The stacks in a transportation vehicle are numbered consecutively from each end of the vehicle toward the doorway.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

A set of policies and procedures put into place to be sure that all parties who use a given program maintain a specific level of consistency.

A U-shaped, round or flat, wire fastener used to secure parts together.

Start/Stop Pattern
A special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as scanning direction indicator. The start character is normally at the far left end of a horizontally oriented symbol. The stop character is normally at the far right end of a horizontally oriented symbol.

One of the shaped vertical units of a coopered wooden container which, when placed edge to edge and bound with hoops around a circular bottom, forms a barrel or other staved container.

To fasten by means of thread (fibre or metal) or staples.

Strapping, Compression
A method of strapping by which the load is compressed before the strap is applied, thereby reducing the likelihood of any shifting or abrasion within the load during shipping.

Strapping, High Tension
Steel strapping of various widths and thicknesses, each with a standard load strength, used to secure lading to the transportation vehicle.

Strapping, Non-Metallic
Strapping made of material such as nylon, polypropylene, rayon,  reinforced tapes, etc. other than metal. Non-metallic strapping has useful elasticity characteristics for holding palletized loads.

Strapping, Steel
Flat-steel band designed for application with tensioning tools, generally used in conjunction with the shipment, storage and handling of materials. Steel strap is available hot or cold rolled, annealed or not annealed, waxed or not waxed, galvanized or stainless, punched or curved.

Stretch Wrap
General term for the type of film which is not heat treated after having been applied.

The vertical members of a pallet which support the top and bottom faces.

One of the smaller packs (which may be a standard quantity or nonstandard quantity pack) that makes up a larger multiple pack.

Substitution Error
A misencodation, misread, or human key entry error where incorrect information is substituted for a character that was to be entered.

The surface on which a bar code symbol is printed.

To bulge out by internal pressure, as by gases caused by spoilage or chemical action.

A combination of bar code characters (including start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology), that forms a complete, scannable entity.

Symbol Length
The distance between the outside edges of the quiet zones on the two ends of a bar code symbol.

A generic list of bar code symbols and the architectural parameters of the encoded characters within each one.


A general term used to refer to cling additives in stretch film.

Metal plate or fibre card giving shipping data, affixed to a shipping container.

A strip or band of paper, textile, metal, plastic, etc. with adhesive on one or both sides.

Tear Strength
Resistance of a material to tearing as determined by accepted tests.

Tensile Strength
The maximum longitudinal stress that stretch wrap can take before it tears.

The stress caused by a force operating to extend, stretch or pull apart.

To examine a material or package for tightness, strength, performance in a designed purpose or perfection.

Test, Compression
Involves the application of force applied by two flat surfaces of a machine to opposite faces of a box, such as the top and bottom, the two ends or the two sides. The test is performed on individual boxes and measurement is taken of the load applied in pounds and the deflection or deformation in one-tenths of an inch. The test is related to the forces which filled boxes encounter while being transported and while stacked in warehouses.

Test, ECT (Edgewise Compression)
This is a measurement of the edgewise compression strength of a (Edgewise short column of corrugated fibreboard. This property in Compression) combination with the caliper or flexural stiffness of the combined board, relates to the top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated shipping containers.

Test, Mullen  (Bursting Strength)
This is a measurement of the resistance of a material to bursting  expressed in pounds per square inch.

Test, Tear
A method to determine the average force in grams required to tear a single sheet of paper after the tear has been started. Done on an Elmendorg-type tester.

One complete layer of material on a pallet or unit.

Rotation of a bar code symbol about an axis perpendicular to the substrate.

Toe Nail
A nail driven obliquely (at a 45° angle).

Top Deck
The total topside deckboard part of a pallet.

Top Sheeting
A protective covering put on the top of a load to protect it from dust, dirt, and other objects that might damage the load.

Trading Partners
All members within the channels of distribution within an industry (carriers, customers, suppliers and intermediaries).

Transport Container
A container intended for the transportation and handling of one or more articles, smaller containers, or bulk material.

A receptacle for which no lid is made. Usually a section of a set-up fibreboard box.

A fibre tray which in combination with a film overwrap is used for packaging of cans.

Any cylindrical shell open at both ends.


Abbreviation for Unit Load or Transport Package (container).

Shipping containers placed on a pallet which do not occupy the entire platform area of the pallet, leaving a void space either lengthwise and/or crosswise.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms

A condition where methods used to package an item are inadequate for the level of protection or other functional characteristics needed for a given distribution and use requirement.

A package pattern with all package lengths in one direction and all widths in the other, utilizing 100% of the net unit-load area.

Unique Container ID
The supplier identification and a container serial number that, together, uniquely identify the container to trading partners (sometimes referred to as license plate).

Unit Load
One or more transport containers or other items held together by means such as strapping, interlocking, glue, shrink wrap, or net wrap, making them suitable for transport, stacking and storage as a unit.

Unit Load Quantity
The number of pieces per primary container multiplied by the number of primary containers in/on the secondary container.

Wrapping techniques that protect a pallet load from top to bottom, making all packages in the load one single unit. These techniques are ideal for long distance hauls and less than truckload shipments. X-wrapping, Wrapping Low, and Cross Top Wrapping are wrapping techniques that promote the best unitization.


VCI Film
Vapor Corrosive Inhibitor film is slow in volatilization and works best for long term protection against corrosion when used in conjunction with VCI paper or other packaging, i.e., boxes, crates, etc.

Vapor Corrosive Inhibitor oil coated to a part volatilizes when used in conjunction with other packaging (i.e., boxes) and it will allow full part protection from corrosion.

VCI Paper
Vapor Corrosive Inhibitor paper has a rapid volatilization rate, it allows for easy volatilization and will achieve immediate protection for the part against corrosion.

Vent Hole
One or more openings in a drum, barrel, etc., for air circulation or to equalize air pressures to facilitate the pouring of liquids.

The undesirable absence of ink in a bar (cf “spot”).


A commitment, either expressed or implied, that a certain fact regarding the subject matter of a contract is presently true or will be true.


  1. In a Just-In-Time environment, any activity that does not add value to the product or service in the eyes of the customer.
  2. Hazardous waste whose disposal is controlled.
  3. A by-product of a process or task with unique characteristics requiring special management control. Waste production can usually be planned and somewhat controlled. Scrap is typically not planned and may result from the same production run as waste.

Waster Sheets
Lumber or other suitable material between adjacent packages to prevent interlocking or damaged ends.

Water Resistant
A board, to be water resistant, shall be sized (treated with water repellent materials) so as to have a degree of resistance to damage or deterioration by water.

Wax Blend Surface Coated
Combined board made from unimpregnated components and coated on one or both sides with a hot-melt wax blend.

Wax Cascaded
Combined board that is treated by cascading molten paraffin wax or wax blend over vertical box blanks so that it seeps down the flutes as well as over the facings.

Wax Dipped
Combined board impregnated by dipping into a hot wax or wax blend such that the resultant wax content of board is not less than 40% of the weight of the board prior to dipping.

Wax Impregnated
Combined board having one or more components infused with a paraffin type wax or wax blend to a minimum of 5 lbs. per 1,000 sq. ft. per impregnated component.

A stout close woven tape or strap used for securing, suspension, etc.

Wedge Brace
A tapered void filler which is forced into position in the center of two or more filler pieces to tighten the load.
Source: AAR Pamphlet No. 41 Dictionary of Standard Terms


  • Billed
    Weight shown in a waybill or freight bill.
  • Gross
    Total combined weight of parts, container and packing material (net + tare).
  • Net
    Weight of parts only (part weight x pieces per container).
  • Tare
    Includes the weight of primary and secondary containers, dunnage, banding, plastic films and pallet and excludes the weight of parts.

Wide-to-Narrow Ratio
The ideal ratio between the width of the wide elements to the width  of the narrow elements of a given symbol.

(A) Common: soft wire of various sizes used as a lading securement. (B) High Tension Steel: wire of definite size and load strength used as a lading securement.

Wire, Rope
A rope made of or containing strands of wire twisted together.

To cover a product by winding or enfolding. Usually to package with an uniform, flexible packaging material.

Wrap, Bundle
To wrap a combination of several small unit-packages into a single unit, usually by machine.

Wrap, Two-Way Stretch
A wrap made by stretching film longitudinally and transversely.

A sheet of flexible material such as paper, foil, film, or lamination, used to cover or enfold a product for storage, shipment or sale.

Wrapping Low
A unitization technique in which the operator holds the stretch wrap applicator at a 45 degree angle to the floor. Angling the roll creates a thick band of film around the bottom of the load and the pallet helping to prevent the load from shifting.


“X” Dimension
The intended width of the narrow elements required by the application, or symbology specification or both.

A unitization technique which brings film over the top of the load and then underneath the pallet to help lock the load to the pallet. This technique makes the load and the pallet one tight unit, helping to prevent shifting during shipment.


The amount of stretch a film gets without interfering with the performance of other properties like tear and puncture resistance.


“Z” Dimension
The achieved width of the narrow elements, calculated as the average of the average narrow bar width and the average narrow space width.

Zipper Tearing
A common problem that occurred in early low density polyethylene stretch films in which a puncture, cut or tear would spread and keep spreading until the wrap fell off. New film additives have virtually eliminated this problem.

Zones (Impact)
Zones on a recorder tape delineated to indicate a degree of force transmitted.

Appendix A. Corrugated Inner Packing
appa Source: H & D Division, West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co.

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